Daoism in History ( cap. 5 to 6)


pp. 74-100 – 5. Christine Mollier : "Demonology and Orthodoxy in Early Daoism".

p. 83 types of gui (daimones), according to the Nu:-qin Gui-lu: (= DZ 790)

gui of __ include of gui of __
animals parasites, insects, tigres, leopards, foxes, snakes, tortoises, birds, monkeys
the house lavatories, wells, hearth, bed
objects weapons, musical instruments, old bones, carts, pillars, clothes

p. 98, n. 17 categories of gui (daimones)

source category description
'' Nu:-qin Gui-lu: 1:1a, 7b the 60 who govern each of the days of the sexagesimal cycle "wayward and murderous demons who have the power to fly over distances of a thousand leagues; their body is human and covered in red hair, and they are without eyes"
'' Don-yuan S^en-z^ou Jin (– quoted in :- AP, p. 125) spirits "that arise at each decade of the sexagesimal cycle" "spirits of floods,
spirits with red turbans,
spirits with black faces and feet,
spirits of ropes and of walls ... changing themselves into red birds."


AT = Christine Mollier : Une apocalypse taoi:ste du Ve sie`cle : livre des incantations divines des grottres abyssales. Paris, 1990.

p. 83 female spirits of menstruation & of praegnancy (according to the Nu:-qin Gui-lu: 4:3b)

of __ clad in __ stature
menstruation green 3 feet tall
praegnancy black 3.3 inches tall

p. 84 monstrosities of various gui, according to the Don-yuan S^en-z^ou Jin of the "Grotto Chasms" denomination

cyclops "with three heads", "with vertical eyes and mouth, or red noses, or with three feet and a dozen hands, two-headed or one-armed", or "with huge headless bodies."

p. 84 spirits which propagate abscesses, according to the Don-yuan S^en-z^ou Jin, cap. 1

spirit-kings in the __ Heavens __ in number and commanding __ spirits propagate __ abscesses
3  ? 418,000 red
6 80,000 7,000,000 white
9 600,000 180,000,000 black
36  ? 80,000,000,000 green

p. 99, n. 30 the 3 Worms, according to the Tai-s^an C^u San-s^i Jiu-c^on Bao-s^en Jin ‘Expelling the 3 Worms and the 9 Insects Life-Protecting Book’ = DZ 871

the Worm in the __ Cinnabar Field situated in the __ hath the appearance of __
Middle heart "a cocoon-like dog"
Lower lower abdomen "a human leg with a cow’s head."

p. 86 ailments sowed by colored breaths, according to the Don-yuan S^en-z^ou Jin, cap. 1 (quoted in AT, p. 101)

__ breaths sow __
blue death
red plague
yellow dysentery
white cholera
black "official crackdowns"

p. 92 features within the extraordinary body, according to the S^an-qin Hou-s^en Dao-jun Lie-ji (= DZ 442) 9b-11b

organ its quality when extraordinary
skeleton "of an Immortal"
marrow red
liver blue
kidneys green


pp. 101-120 – 6. Maeda Shigeki : "Is the Karma of the Parent Visited upon the Child?"

pp. 103-105 instances of retributions for actions

p. 103 "Kun was banished, whereas [his son] Yu: was raised [to the rank of minister]" (Fen-fa Yao, T.2102:87b – transl. in :- BCCh, p. 169)
p. 105 "We may find references in Zuozhuan to examples of ghosts haunting people".


BCCh = Erik Zu:rcher : The Buddhist Conquest of China. Leiden : Brill, 1972.

pp. 106-107 instances of "blessings will flow if virtue is accumulated"

p. 106 [anecdote from You-min Lu] "Liu Chen and Ruan Zhao of Yanxian lost their way deep in Tiantai shan, and unintentionally arrived at the home of two female immortals. The two female immortals ... said, ‘It is an accumulation of good fortune (sufu) that has drawn you here. ... .’ and so they stayed another half year."
p. 107 " ‘Cheng’ is the ancestors’ acting in accordance to the Heavenly Will" (Tai-pin Jin He-jiao 39:70). "Our forebears who possessed the Heavenly Will had no sin".

p. 109 instances of benevolent government ministers

"Xi Jian, a powerful minister at the beginning of the Eastern Jin, ... led thousands of refugees from the north, and wandered unaided for three years, finally reaching Jiangnan. The son Xi Hui ..., with the courtesy name of Fanghui ... and his sister’s husband Wang Xizhi ... practiced the arts of Huang-Lao."

pp. 110-113 development of human karman through the kalpa-s, according to the Tai-s^an Don-xuan Lin-bao San-yuan Pin-jie Gon-de Qin-c^on Jin (= DZ 456) 32a-35b

p. 110 "scriptures say, ‘If one does not ... rescue the banished cloudsouls, they will have no means to gain release. ... .’ ...
p. 111 Thus the self’s birthing father and mother are not the father and mother that originally gave birth to the self. ... But the form that the self receives is not the form of the self. The form is just a dwelling place or lodging for the self. ...
p. 112 The ten thousand troubles arise from the body; while the bodiless enter into that which is so of itself. When one establishes one’s practice and joins with the Dao, ... the body spirits are united. When these are united, this is the true [perfected] body. This return to the father and mother who originally gave birth to the self is to complete the Dao. [If, however, this be not done, then at death the dead] body ... will become ghosts. The cloudsouls and bodily spirits, released, will eventually merge with these ghosts, transforming to become one again and being reborn as a human being. ... From prior to the kalpa cycle of Dragonic Magnificence to that of Red Clarity, ... birth and death resulted from [one’s own actions]. But, after the age of red Clarity and into the age of the Higher Monarch, ... they began to call upon their ancestors above and their descendants below for surety in making oaths to one another. ... When they did to keep faith and broke their oaths, [their family members] were bound and taken before the Three Officers, where they were condemned to act as officials among the shades. ... Old and young implicated one another, so that they were not released until the heavens came to an end ... . ...
p. 113 The establishment of merit is for heaven and earth, for the sun, moon, and stars, ... for the ancestors, for those in one’s family, for all the myriad forms of life and only finally for one’s self. The scriptures say, ‘Whoever wishes to save himself must first save others. ...’ ... As for those who have achieved release from ... the realms of enduring night in the nine dark regions, none has not done so merit."

p. 114 This book is listed (as ‘San-yuan Jie-pin’) in the catalogue Lin-bao Jin-mu; and (as ‘Tai-s^an Don-xuan Lin-bao San-yuan Pin-jie’) in the catalogue Juan-mu (by Son Wen-min), which relied on San-don Jin-s^u Mu-lu (by Lu Xiu-jin, who presented his book to the throne ‘by decree’ in 471 Chr.E.).

pp. 114-115 esoteric deities & cosmic ages

p. 114 Master Lu, a recluse abiding on Waterfall Peak of mt. Lu, said (in 467 Chr.E.), "In Buddhism it is "liu qin"; in Daoism, the Jade Sovereign. These are but different roads that arrive in the same place."
p. 119, n. 29 /liu-qin/ (literally) ‘tarrying in China’ was a pun : it "may have sounded like ... one common transliteration of Vairocana".
p. 115 Master Lu, furthermore, in expounding the "two ages", said, ‘The scripture states : "Do you not know whose child I am? My image preceded the Thearchs."’

pp. 117-118 dread of ghost of member of one’s own family, according to Yan-s^i Jia-xun (translated in FI, p. 36)

p. dread
117 "after a man’s death there is a day on which his soul returns and on such a day all his sons and
118 grandsons would run away ... . Charms are drawn on tiles and plates to prevent the return. On the day for carrying the coffin to burial, ... ashes are spread on the doorway to repel the family ghost."


FI = Teng Ssu-yu: (tr.) : Family Instructions for the Yen Clan. Leiden : Brill, 1968.


Benjamin Penny (ed.) : Daoism in History. Routledge, London, 2006. [festschrift in honor of professor emeritus Liu Ts’un-yan of Australian National University] (pp. 74-120)