Daoism in History [cap. 8 to 9]


pp. 159-188 – 8. Franciscus Verellen : "Ritual and Contemplative Graphics in Daoist Scriptures".

p. 183, n. 2 the 12 genres of the Dao-zan

genre meaning
Ben-wen "Fundamental Writings"
S^en-fu "Sacred Symbols"
Yu-jue "Exegeses"
Lin-tu "Efficacious Diagrams"
Pu-lu "Annals"
Jie-lu: Praecepts
Wei-yi "Solemn Rites"
Fan-fa "Techniques"
Z^on-s^u "Miscellaneous Arts"
Ji-z^uan "Hagiography"
Zan-son "Hymns"
Biao-zou "Memorials"

p. 162, Fig. 8.2 "Arrangement of the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches on the hand [assigned to finger-joints]", according to the Su-wen Ru-s^i Yun-qi Lun-[g]ao (1099) 1.2a {cf. assignment of phrases of the Gayatri mantra to finger-joints (as disclosed during initiation)}

pp. 185, 169 geographies of divine realms

p. 185, n. source p. 169 map of __
n. 46 Xuan-lan Ren-niao S^an Jin-tu ‘Mysterious-Contemplation [of] Man-Bird Mountain Book-Map’ (= DZ 434) 5a "Man-Bird Mountain"
n. 48 Wu-s^an Huan-lu Da-z^ai Li-c^en Li ‘Supreme Yellow-Register Standard-Rituals Retreat’ (= DZ 508) 40:5b Fen-du underworld
n. 49 Xiu-z^en Tai-ji Hun-yuan Tu ‘Perfection-Cultivation Great-Ultimate Chaos-Primordial Diagrams’ (= DZ 149) 8a "the Three Isles and Ten Continents of the Blessed"

pp. 185, 171 "illustrations of contemplative practices ... in meditation manuals"

p. 185, n. source p. 171 illustration
n. 53 Tai-s^an Lao-jun Da Cun-si Tu Z^u-jue ‘Most-High Old-Lord Principal Visualizations Illustrated-Instructions’ (= DZ 875) 23b-24b "evocations of gods in ... transmission rituals", including "a visitation from Heaven rewarding an adept for assiduous recitations of the scripture."
n. 54 Da-don Jin-hua Yu-jin ‘Golden-Flower Jade-Scripture’ (= DZ 254) 7a-10a the 9 "stages of the whirlwind (huaifeng) meditation"
n. 55 S^an-qin Dan-tian San-qi Yu-huan Liu-c^en Fei-gan Si-min Da-lu ‘6-Stars Flying-Steps Governing-Fate Register’ (= DZ 675) 3a "a meditating Daoist"
ibid., 4b-5a "meditating on the Dipper while reclining"
n. 56 Gao-s^an Da-don Wen-c^an Si-lu Zi-yan Bao-lu ‘Wen-c^an Career-Controller Purple-Yan Pretious-Register’ (= DZ 1214) 3:11b-12b "eight dream apparitions of animals, monster and strange occurrences [yin-men]"

pp. 185, 174 illustrations of psycho-physiological agents, and of herbs

p. 185, n. source p. 174 illustration
n. 62 Tai-s^an C^u San-s^i Jiu-c^on Bao-s^en Jin ‘Eliminating 3-Corpses [&] 9-Worms Protecting-Life Scripture’ (= DZ 871) 8b san-s^i ‘3-Corpses’
ibid., 2b-3b qi-po (‘7-PoSpirits’)
n. 64 Bo-yun Xian-ren Lin-cao Z^i-cao Pin ‘White-Cloud Immortal-Person’s Divine-Herbs Hymn’ (= DZ 1406) 2a mythic mushrooms of longevity

pp. 185, 174-176 illustrations of metaphoric draught-animals

p. 185, n. source pp. 174-176 illustration
n. title p. depiction
66 S^an-c^in Qu-su Jue-ci Lu ‘Labyrinth’s-Emanation Instructions Register’ (= DZ 1392) 24a-b 174 hui-ju bi-dao ‘chariot’s-return final-way’ = ox-drawn vehicle conveying the adept to the site for ascension on high
67 '' Xuan-zon Z^i-z^i Wan-fa Ton-gui ‘Myriad-Doctrines Integration’ (= DZ 1066) 1:10a-b " buffalo-&-chariot as xin-min (body-&-soul)
68 '' S^an C^en Xiu-z^en San-yao ‘Perfection-Cultivation 3-Essentials’ (= DZ 267) 1 175-6 training a horse = xin (‘mind’)
69 vide HsCh, pp. 171-2 176 horse as xin (‘heart-mind’)


HsCh = Glen Dudbridge : The Hsi-yu Chi. Cambridge U Pr, 1970.

pp. 177, 178, 179 uses of fu (‘talisman’s)

p. use
177 "the Yellow Emperor used a fu to obtain divine help in a military campaign, while Yu the Great employed the Five Talismans of the Divine Treasure to control the flood."
178 "Fu-talismans ... function as letters of command addressed to demons and deities."
179 "Many seal inscriptions contain the character tong, meaning to ‘penetrate’, and are used as media for communicating with the unseen world. An example is seen in the [Tai-s^an Ton-xuan Lin-yin Jin] ‘Scripture of the Most High on Efficacious Seals for Communicating with Mystery’."

p. 179 "seals were engraved in reverse relief, the reverse image revealing, like the reflection in a mirror, the ‘true form’ of invisible entities."

pp. 178-179 Fu (‘talismans’) & Tu (‘pictures’)

p. source fu & tu
178 Don-xuan Lin-bao Er-s^i-si S^en Tu-jin ‘24 Energies of Life Diagram-Scripture’ (= DZ 1407) 7a 24 fu "arranged in three hierarchical groups of Eight Effulgences (bajing)"
179 S^an-qin Tian-xin Z^en-fa ‘Heavenly-Heart Correct Method’ (= DZ 566) 3 fundamental talismans : San-guan fu, Tian-gan fu, Hei-s^a fu

p. 179 Hei-s^a, "the Black Killer, ... was the chief officer of the Emperor of the North (Beidi). The latter presided over the Department of Exorcism (Quxie yuan)".

pp. 180-181 Fan Li, according to the Z^en-yi Fa-wen Xiu-z^en Z^i-yao ‘Orthodox-One Perfection-Practice Essentials’ (= DZ 1270) 19b (-- see also ASIA MAJOR, 3rd series, 6:2, 1993, pp. 1-84)

pp. 180-1 yin (sigil) p. 181 associated text
7 stars of Bei-dou (‘Northern Dipper’ constellation); 6 stars of Nan-dou (‘Southern Dipper’ constellation); diagram of San-tai (‘3 Terraces’) constellation "In ancient times, Fan Li ... caused mountains to crumble, river and seas {oceanic currents} to flow backwards, spirit-powers to tremble with fear, and thunderclaps to resound."


pp. 189-253 – 9. Liu Ts’un-yan : "Was Celestial Master Zhang a Historical Figure?"

p. 203 the colors of the 3 Qi -- according to the ‘Da-dao Jia Lin-jie’ section of the Z^en-yi Fa-wen Tian-s^i Jiao-jie Ke-jin (DZ 789), 12a

the __ (‘__’) Qi is __ and formed the __
Xuan (‘Mystic’) blue heaven
S^i (‘Inaugural’) yellow earth
Yuan (‘Primal’) white the Way

p. 203 the 3, individually; and blended -- according to praeceding untitled section of the Z^en-yi Fa-wen Tian-s^i Jiao-jie Ke-jin, 10a-b

individually blended into oneness
Wu-s^an (‘Supreme’); Xuan-lao (‘Mystic-&-Antient’); Tai-s^an (‘Most High’) Way of Orthodox Truth of Limitless Height

p. 204 the colors of the 3 spirits -- according to the ‘Si San-qi’ section of the S^an-qin Huan-s^u Guo-du-yi, 5b

on the __ is __ Spirit whose color is __
left Supreme true green
right Mysterious-&-Antient true yellow
[centre] Most High true white

p. 204 the colors of the 4 Mystic-&-Primal palace-encircling Qi -- according to the ‘Si Wan-qi’ section of the S^an-qin Huan-s^u Guo-du-yi, 13a-b

__ Qi of __ (‘__’)
green Tai-qin (‘Grand Clarity’)
white Tai-su (‘Grand Simplicity’)
red Tai-c^u (‘Grand Incipience’)
yellow Tai-s^i (‘Grand Inauguration’)

p. 209 the colors at the Yellow Springs during the 3 dynasties -- according to the Li San-z^en Ji, cited in the ‘San-z^en’ chapter of the Bo-hu Ton, 8:362

month 11th 12th 13th
color red white black
qi yan yin humans
dynasty Z^ou Yin [= S^an] Xia
__ Rectifiers Heavenly Earthly Human

p. 248, n. 106 colors of the 3 dynasties

the 1st part of the ‘Tan-gong’ chapter of the Li-ji saith that emperor / dynasty honored __
Yu the Great of the Xia black
the Yin people white
the Zhou people red
the commentary by Kon Yin-da of the Tan citeth the __ an apocryphon to the __ to the same effect.
Yuan-min Bao C^un-qiu
Ji-yao Jia Yue-jin

p. 210 containing cycles

according to __ least medium cycle greatest cycle
the apocryphon Qian-zuo Du 3 Subtleties of Heavenly Qi = 1 Manifestation 3 Manifestations = 1 Body
the commentary by Z^en Xuan 5 days = 1 Subtlety 15 days = 1 Manifestation

p. 210 seasonal rectifications by the 3 dynasties -- according to the Hou Han-s^u Bu-Zu by Hui Don during the Qin dynasty

season was rectification by __ dynasty
‘Winter Solstice’ Z^ou
‘Lesser Cold’ S^an
‘Greater Cold’ Xia

p. 212 the 5 who bestow "the ghost title to pass down the generations" -- according to the San-don Z^u-nan from the time of emperor Gao and empress Wu of the Tan

Xin-c^u Tai-s^an Lao-jun ‘Newly-Emerged Most-High Old-Lord’
‘Archivist of the Z^ou’ (= Lao-zi)
‘Most High August Emperor, the Central Yellow Realized Lord’
Z^an Lian
‘Zi-yuan of the Han’ (maternal grandfather of Z^an Lian) – actually Wan Bao (from S^u), who flourished during the reign of emperor Xuan

p. 249, n. 120 the 3 saints each named /Wan Bao/

# 1st 2nd 3rd
courtesy name Zi-yuan Zi-den Zi-yuan
location S^u Xian-pen in Fan-yan
time emperor Xuan of the western Han Lian & northern Z^ou dynasties
biography '' Han-s^u 64xia:2821-2830 Wan-s^i S^en-xian Z^uan '' Z^ou-s^u 41:729-733

p. 249, n. 122 the ghost-masters of the 5 directions

according to the Nu:-qin gui-lu: 6:2a-b according to the last chapter of the Wu-wan Fa-z^ou Pin-hua from the Yuan dynasty
Liu Yuan-da 5. Liu Gon-yuan
Z^an Yuan-bo 3. Yao Wen-lian
Z^ao Gon-min 2. Z^ao Gon-min
Z^on S^i-ji 4. Z^on S^i-cai
S^i Wen-ye 1. S^i Yuan-hua

p. 221 divine convocations by spirits in heaven -- according to the Don-xuan Yuan-s^i Wu-lao C^i-s^u Yu-pian Jin, as quoted in the Wu-s^an Bi-yao 9:7a

In heaven, many eminent spirits "regularly, on the twenty-third of the month, ascend and meet in the Palace of Penetratingly Numinous Primal Yang on Jade Capital Mountain in the Grand Mystic Metropolis of the Numinous Jewel ... together they would collate and compare the lengths of life on the registers of the heavenly people ... .
That day [the eminent spirits] order the Grand Monad and the eight spirit envoys to descend ... and to go throughout the world inspecting ... the heavenly people."

The transmitted text of the Yuan-s^i Wu-lao C^i-s^u Yu-pian Z^en-wen Tian-s^u Jin is almost the same as this, "except that the twenty-third day is changed to the eighteenth day."

pp. 222, 235 the Red Eyebrows & the Yellow Turbans

p. 222 according to the biography of Liu Pen-zi in the Hou Han-s^u 11:479-80 "the Red Eyebrows – ‘advanced as far as Huayin. In the army there were commonly mediums from Qi who would beat drums and dance ..., seeking good fortune and assistance.’ "
p. 235 according to the Wei-s^u, cited by Pei Son-z^i the Yellow Turbans worshipped in the "Way ... at one with the Central Yellow Grand Monad" (Z^on-huan Tai-yi)

p. 230 titles of spirit-officers (according to the Z^en-yi Fa-wen Jin Z^an-guan Pin)

1:1b "Lord of the Green Dragon Spring"
1:10b "Lord of Relieving Adversity"
2:8a "Lord of the White Serpent in Heaven" ("controls poisonous snakes")
2:14a "Official who Protects the Foetus"
3:3a "Lord of the Plain Carriage and the White Horse" ("is concerned with ghosts and demons of tombs.")
2:19a "Supreme Old Man of the Nine Heavens"
" "Mystic and Ancient Great General"
2:18a "Most High" ("regulates 400,000 heavenly soldiers and is in charge of containing the ghost who calls himself "The August Heavenly Emperor"")


contents 1a-2b -- list of 77 affairs whereover spirits had control

pp. 251-252, n. 195 the heavens which come into being through the 3 Qi -- according to the Tai-z^en Ke, cited in Men An-pai’s Dao-jiao Yi-s^u 7:5b

territory of __ Clarity the __ Heaven __ Qi
Jade Qin-wei Inaugural
Upper Yu-yu Primal
Grand Da-c^i (‘Great Red’) Mystic

p. 233 lists of officers of the Red Heaven (according to the Tai-s^an San-wu Z^en-yi Men-wei Lu)

list of divine generals entitled ‘__ of the 3 and the 5 of the Red Heaven’
2:9a-13b Chaos
2:13b-14b Controller of Destinies of the Central Yellow


Tai-s^an Z^en-yi Men-wei Fa-lu 1:1b – list of the 15 "Spirit Officers who Get Rid of Hindrances to Union of the Red Heaven of the Upper Immortal Metropolis"

p. 239 secret instructions in the ‘Xie C^an-qi, 2’ chapter of Tao Hon-jin’s Z^en-gao, 10:23b

"Walking through the mountains to all the numinous temples and shrines, hold a realised man in the mouth whose courtesy name is Red and Numinous Elder. He is attended by two Jade Maidens, one called ‘Flourishing Truth’ (Hua Zheng), the other called ‘Conserve Essence’ (She Jing). The Elder wears a red silk robe, the two Jade Maidens clothed completely in yellow. ...
This is the method of apprehending ghosts used by the Vanguard of the Three Heavens."


Benjamin Penny (ed.) : Daoism in History. Routledge, London, 2006. [festschrift in honor of professor emeritus Liu Ts’un-yan of Australian National University] (pp. 159-253)