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"Breathing Techniques"

the 9 chambers of the Upper Cinnabar Field -- according to the [Tun-c^en] T>ai-s^an Su-lin [Tun-yu:an] Ta-yu Miao-c^in (Very-High Pure-Transcendence Great-Being Marvelous-Book) (= TT 1026) 19b

p. penetrating __ inches __ Kun ('__ Palace')
456 3/10 S^ou-ts>un S^uan-t>ien ('Twin Fields')
1 Min-t>an ('Government Chamber')
2 Tun-fan ('Chamber of the Arcane')
3 Tan-t>ien ('Cinnabar Field')
4 Liu-c^u ('Moving Pearls')
5 Yu:-ti ('jade Emperor')
1 above M.-t>. T>ien-t>in ('Heavenly Court')
1 above T.-f. C^i-c^en ('Summit of Reality')
457 1 above T.-t>. Hsu:an-tan ('Mysterious Cinnabar')
1 bove L.-c^. T>ai-huan ('Great Sovereign')

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pp. 455-456 "This is perhaps ... the internal brain in the interhemispheric region, the callous body with the ventricle of the septum lucidum apparently constituting the upper level, and ... the third and fourth ventircles, plus the epiphyse, making the lower level."

breaths according to the Yen-lin Hsien-s^en C^i Hsin-c^iu Fu-c^>i C^in ('Books New and Old on the Absorption of Breath Gathered by the Master of Yen-lin') (= TT 570) 18a

p. c^>i ('breath') in the __
479 internal T>ien-kuan ('Caelestial Tollgate')
external S^en-lu ('Divine Hut')
481 tzu-jan yu:an ('spontaneous original') viscera
fan-c^en c^ih ('hot') 4 limbs
c^in-hua c^ih ('Essential-Flower') Ocean of Breath
484 red pearl of yin-huo ('Planet Mars') Caelestial Barrier

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p. 487 respiratory exercises, according to the Han Wu Wai-c^uan (= TT 137) 12a

dress head with Golden Turban
enter Caelestial Door
swallow the Mysterious Source
beat the Caelestial Drum
nourish the Ni-huan

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p. 488 respiratory exercises, according to the S^en T>ien-s^ih Fu-c^>i Yao-c^u:eh ('Efficacious Formula for Absorbing the Breath, by Caelestial Master S^en'), in Yu:n-c^i C^>i-c^>ien cap. 59, 16b

drain away the "breath of cereals"
guide the "Ocean of Breath" into the "Cinnabar Field"

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pp. 491-494 Huan-t>in C^in (Yellow Court Book) (= TT 167-168) [and paraphrased by Liu C^>an-s^en in TT 189 (p. 490, fn. 98)]

p. verse
491 3 direction place
above Huan-t>in ('Yellow Court')
below Kuan-yu:an ('Origin of the Barrier')
4 behind Yu-c^>u:eh ('Dark Portal')
before Min-men ('Door of Destiny')
5 in centre space of the Hut, make breath enter Cinnabar Field
492 6 while with Pure Water of the Jade Lake, bathe Transcendent Root
7 from its depths get Continual Life
8 2 deities clad in vermilion, who
9 with lock with key the door of the Barrier
10 high on both sides, is the Dark Portal
11 amidst [Lower] Cinnabar Field, Essence & Breath are rendered subtle
12 rising Pure Water of Jade Lake produceth fat [grease]
13 firm is the Transcendent Root
493 14 in the Central Lake is god clad in red & in vermilion
15 3 inches below the Cinnabar Field / Transversal is a venerable god
494 16 close tight the separation between interior & exterior
17 set in order the interior of the Hut where the gods pass

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2 commentaries on Huan-t>in C^in (Yellow Court Book)

p.:fn. 'Yellow Court Book' W.-c^>. L.-c^>.
491:100 Huan-t>in ('Yellow Court') eyen spleen
Kuan-yu:an ('Origin of the Barrier') 3 inches below navel
Yu-c^>u:eh ('Dark Portal') kidneys kidneys
Min-men ('Door of Destiny') below navel
492:101 the Hut, make breath enter Cinnabar Field nose nose

Jade Lake

mouth mouth
Pure Water of the Jade Lake, bathe Transcendent Root saliva saliva
:102 get C^<an-s^en ('Aeternal Life') face hath a luminous radiance
:103 persons clad in vermilion, who pupils of eyen
:104 with lock with key the door of the Barrier lock = teeth; key = tongue
:105 on both sides, is the Dark Portal
[Lower] Cinnabar Field, Essence & Breath are rendered subtle
Pure Water of Jade Lake produceth fat [grease]
is the Transcendent Root
493:106 Central Lake is god clad in red & in vermilion god of the heart
:108 in the Cinnabar Field below the Transversal is a venerable god
494:109 the separation between interior & exterior lock the Golden Barrier
:110 the interior of the Hut where the gods pass hairs in nose hairs in nose

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W.-c^>. = commentary by Wu-c^>en-tzu in Yu:n-c^i C^>i-c^>ien cap. 12, 30a-60a

L.-c^>. = commentary by Lian-c^>iu-tzu in Hsiu-c^en S^ih-s^u cap. 58-60 (= TT 131)

p. 497 effects of the 6 methods for expelling breath (liu-c^>i '6 breaths')

breath governing internal organ governed sensory organ tissue / power malady cured
c^>ih lungs nose skin abscesses
ho heart tongue speaking halitosis
hu spleen Central Palace digestion
c^>ui kidneys ears reproductive impotence
hsi 3-burning
hsu: liver eyen vision tumors

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p. 498 modes of breathing

breath mode
hsu: breathing gently [slowly] through mouth
c^>ui breathing "sharply" [rapidly] through mouth {cf. Agni Yoga}
ho "noisy snoring"

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{other "breaths" might include wheezing, etc.}

expulsion of "poison" [evil spirits intaken with foods?]

p. food breath for expulsion
498 "food" [meats? -- spirits of animals angered at having been slaughtered?] ho
499 "wine" [grapes -- spirits angered at having been crushed by being stomped under humans' feet?] & "cakes" [grains -- spirits angered at having been threshed by being stomped under cattle's feet?] hsu: (or else c^>ui & hu)

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p. 501 during the 6 Dynasties: # of times for swallowing the "living breath", according to Hsien C^in ('Book of the Immortals'), as quoted in the T>ai-c^in T>iao-c^>i C^in 1a

hours breathings
midnight (tzu) = 11 PM - 1 AM 9^2 = 81
cock-crow (c^i-min) = 1-3 AM 8^2 = 64
sunrise (jih-c^>u) = 5-7 AM 6^2 = 36
meal-time (s^ih-s^ih) = 7-9 AM 5^2 = 25
almost-noon (yu:-c^un) = 9-11 AM 4^2 = 16

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p. 500 noon to midnight = 11 AM - 11 PM was the period of the "dead breath"

p. 502 during the Sun Dynasty: # of times during alternating double-hours for swallowing the "living breath", according to the T>ai-s^an Yan-s^en T>ai-hsi C^>i-c^in ('Book of the Breath of Embryonic Respiration to Nourish the Life [Principle, told] by the Very High') (= TT 568) 1a-b

hours breathings
11 PM - 1 AM 9^2 = 81
3-5 AM 8^2 = 64
7-9 AM 7^2 = 49
11 AM - 1 PM 6^2 = 36
3-5 PM 5^2 = 25
7-9 PM 4^2 = 16

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pp. 503-504 S^ih-c^>i Fa ("Procedure for Feeding on Breath") by C^>i C^ien of C^un-yu:eh ('the Central Peak'), as cited in the S^en-hsien S^ih-c^>i C^in-kuei Miao-lu ("Marvelous Register of the Golden Coffer on Breath Absorption by the Divine Immortals") (= TT 571) 3a-b

p. hours breathings
503 gloaming (p>in-tan) = 3-5 AM 7^2 = 49
sunrise (jih-c^>u) = 5-7 AM 6^2 = 36
meal-time (s^ih-s^ih) = 7-9 AM 5^2 = 25
almost-noon (yu:-c^un) = 9-11 AM 4^2 = 16
noon (jih-c^un) = 11 AM - 1 PM 9^2 = 81
sun-declining (jih-tieh) = 1-3 PM 8^2 = 64
mid-afternoon (pu-s^ih) = 3-5 PM 7^2 = 49
sunset (jih-ju) = 5-7 PM 6^2 = 36
dusk (huan-hun) = 7-9 PM 5^2 = 25
man's rest (jen-tin) = 9-11 PM 4^2 = 16
pan-yeh (midnight) = 11 PM - 1 AM 9^2 = 81
504 c^i-min (cock-crow) = 1-3 AM 8^2 = 64

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p. 504 Rules for absorption of the Breath for the 12 months -- according to the S^an-c^>in Ssu-min Mao C^en-c^u:n Hsiu-hsin C^ih-mi C^u:eh (TT 571; YCCC cap. 61, 12a-13b)

month breathings in morning breathings in afternoon
1st 160 200
2nd 180 180
3rd 200 160
4th 220 140
5th 240 120
6th 220 140
7th 200 160
8th 180 180
9th 160 200
10th 140 220
11th 120 240
12th 140 220

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pp. 507-509 method of swallowing the 5 sprouts -- according to Ssu-ma C^>en-c^en: Fu-c^>i-c^in Yi Lun ("Dissertation on the Meaning of Absorbing Breath and Essence"), sect. 1, in:- YCCC, cap. 57, 2b-5a

p. comestible location in mouth
507 Green Shoot morning Flower outside of upper teeth
508 C^u-tan ('Vermilion Cinnabar') Tan-c^>ih ('Cinnabar Lake') outside of lower teeth
wu & c^i of T>ai S^an Li-c^>u:an ('Source of Liqueur') top of gullet
Min-s^ih ('Brilliant Stone') Lin-yi ('Transcendent Liquid') inside of upper teeth
509 Hsu:an-tzu ('Mysterious Sap') Yu:-yi ('Jade Syrup') inside of lower teeth

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p. 509, fn. 173 gods of the regions of Breaths -- according to the Tun-hsu:an Yu:an-s^ih C^>ih-s^u C^in 1b

direction east south centre west north
stature 9 inches 3 inches 12 inches 7 inches 5 inches
garment winged green winged cinnabar winged yellow winged white winged black
1000s in retinue [900] 300 120 700 500

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p. 514 method for absorbing the breath of the sun -- according to the S^an-c^>in Wo-c^un C^u:eh, cap. 1, 5b-6a

"At dawn…, call up from the bottom of " thine heart the jih-hun ('sun-soul'), which shineth "like pearl with green reflections changing into a red halo".
"make the middle of the brilliant cloud have a purple breath like the pupil of an eye. This is to be done ten times over."
The 5-colored breath [of the sun] is to be swallowed 45 times.

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pp. 514-515 the methods, followed by the Perfect, for absorbing -- according to the Ten-c^en Yin-c^u:eh, cap. 2

p. 514 absorbing by males of jih-hsian ('sun-image') from 'sun'-character written in vermilion on green paper p. 514, fn. 190 absorbing by females of yu:eh-hsian ('moon-image') from 'moon'-character written on yellow paper
p. 515 absorbing by males of jih-man ('sun-rays') p. 515, fn. 193 absorbing by females of yu:eh-man ('moon-rays')

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p. 516 colored breaths of the sun to be expelled and inhaled -- according to the Sa^n-c^>in San-c^en C^ih-yao Yu:-c^u:eh (= TT 193) 9a-10b

necessary to be __ color of breath __-c^>I ("__ Breath")
expelled black S^ih (Corpse)
white Ku (Old)
blue Ssu (Death)
inhaled 4 times yellow
inhaled 7 times red
absorbed green

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p. 516, fn. 197 colors of light & of brilliance, & # of rays -- according to the S^an-c^>in Min-t>an Yu:an-c^en C^in-c^u:eh 1b-2a

light brilliance # of rays
sun red purple 9
moon yellow white 10

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nights of the moon for practicing meditation

p. meditation nights of the moon
515 "upon the sun in one's heart" 5th, 15th, & 29th
517 upon the moon 1st to 15th (waxing)

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p. 517 absorption of fog and of clouds

reference to be absorbed
Ten-c^en Yin-c^u:eh, cap. c^un, 19b-20a hua-c^in ('quintessence') of water & fire of mountains & lakes; yin-c^>i ('abundant breath') of metal & stones
Lin-pao C^in-min Ta-fa Wan-tao Yu:-c^an Pi-c^u:eh (= TT 315) "a breath of purple cloud which, turning to the left from the Bushel [constellation], successively" traverseth the 28 lunar mansions and thereupon returneth to above the C^in-men ('Golden Gate')

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Henry Maspero (translated from the French by Frank A. Kierman, Jr.): Taoism and Chinese Religion. U. of MA Pr, Amherst, 1981. pp. 443-554.